Reviewed by: HU Medical Review Board | Last reviewed: April 2023 | Last updated: September 2023
Biofeedback is a painless, noninvasive process that uses electrical sensors to monitor the body’s functions and provide information on a computer or video display. With biofeedback, the physiological responses of the body, which are usually not noticed by the patient, are sensed with the electrical sensors and computer. The visual or auditory feedback the patient experiences from the technology provides awareness of these bodily functions. Patients soon learn to influence the responses and manipulate these physiological events.1
Some people with migraine have found that using biofeedback can learn how to control or lessen their migraine symptoms, such as reducing pain.
There are several different measurements that may be taken during a biofeedback session, which are chosen based on the person's goals, such as:
- Heart rate
- Blood pressure
- Brain waves
- Skin temperature
- Muscle tension
Electrodes are attached to the person’s body so that the measurements can be seen on monitors. Therapists who specialize in biofeedback teach the participant how to change the body’s functions by using their thought patterns or relaxing different muscles in the body.
Conditions that may benefit from biofeedback
Biofeedback is used for a variety of conditions, including:1
- High blood pressure
- Tension headache
- Chronic pain
- Irritable bowel syndrome
- Motion sickness
- Urinary incontinence
Biofeedback for migraine has also been shown in some studies to be a helpful natural remedy for those who suffer from persistent migraines.
Was biofeedback effective in relieving your migraine symptoms?
Research on biofeedback and migraine
A 2007 meta-analysis (a study that searches through recently published literature to review research trials) evaluated 55 trials of biofeedback and migraines. Researchers found that biofeedback was more effective than control conditions, and biofeedback had the strongest improvement in the frequency of migraine and perceived self-efficacy (the confidence of the people in being able to engage their learned strategies).2
Things to consider about biofeedback for migraine
Biofeedback is considered safe. Since no drugs, supplements, or products are put in the body, there haven’t been side effects reported. The US Food and Drug Administration doesn't regulate biofeedback devices, so as always discuss with your doctors to ensure the device is the right fit for your treatment plan.
Additionally, discuss with your doctor to determine if muscle contraction done during biofeedback may harm any existing conditions.
How would you rate the side effects you experienced with biofeedback?
As always, the best source for advice on treating migraine is your own migraine specialist. Before beginning treatment for migraine, tell your doctor about all your health conditions and any other drugs, vitamins, or supplements you are taking. This includes over-the-counter drugs.