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What is the physiological process that causes migraine?

I ask because over the years my doctors have given different explanations - (1) blood vessels swelling in the brain (2) or a tiny hole in the heart or (3) mini strokes or (4) something similar to epileptic seizures. Seriously, is this known or are we just guessing?

  1. I saw a documentary that illustrasted the role of serotonin in migraine. It was on NHK World, but I fail to find a link.

    Here is info from John Hopkins University.

    https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/nervous_system_disorders/how_a_migraine_happens_85,P00787

    1. Medical science doesn't know the cause yet - there have been theories but nothing substantial. That's why there's a lot of stigma around migraines still, because you can't look at something and diagnose migraine - it's an illness of exclusion.

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